THE
SPARKS QUARTERLY

THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE SPARKS FAMILY ASSOCIATION

“He who careth not from whence he came, careth little whither he goeth.” Daniel Webster


VOL. IX, NO. 4 DECEMBER, 1961 
WHOLE NO. 36a

 
Index Next Page Previous Page Previous Whole No.

[Here appears a document, beneath which is the following caption:]

A document supporting the pension application
of Patsey Sparks, Widow of Leonard Sparks, of
Cherokee County, Alabama.  (See pages 596-98)

(View document)

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THE SPARKS QUARTERLY, published by The Sparks Family Association.

      Paul E. Sparks, President, 155 N Hite Ave., Louisville 6, Kentucky.
      William Perry Johnson, Historian-Genealogist, Box 531 Raleigh, North Carolina.
      Russell E. Bidlack, Secretary-Treasurer, 1709 Cherokee Rd., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The Sparks Family Association was founded in March, 1953, as a non-profit organization devoted to the assembling of and preserving for posterity all genealogical and historical material pertaining to the Sparks family in America.  Membership in the Association is open to all persons connected in any way with the Sparks family, whether by blood, marriage, or adoption, and especially to those interested in genealogical and historical research. Membership falls into three classes: Active, Contributing, and Sustaining. Active membership dues are two dollars per year; Contributing membership dues are three dollars per year; Sustaining membership dues are any amount over three dollars. All members, whether Active, Contributing, or Sustaining, receive THE SPARKS QUARTERLY as it is published in March, June, September, and December. Libraries, genealogical and historical societies, and individuals may subscribe to the QUARTERLY without joining the Association at the rate of two dollars per year. Back issues are kept in print and are available for fifty cents per issue. The first issue of the QUARTERLY was published in March, 1953. The editor from March, 1953, to September, 1954, was Paul E. Sparks; since September, 1954, the editor has been Russell E. Bidlack. The QUARTERLY is printed at the Edwards Letter Shop, .711 N. University, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

SPARKSES IN THE WAR OF 1812

BOUNTY LAND AND PENSION APPLICATIONS

(Continued from page 589)

JOSEPH D. SPARKS, born about 1795 in Ulster County, New York, died March 29, 1867, at Jefferson, New York; a substitute in the War of 1812 for John Sparks; ESTHER C. (TITUS) SPARKS, widow. Land Warrant File 22 409-420-55; Pension File WC 15 492.

On Dec. 3, 1850, Joseph D. Sparks, a resident of the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, appeared before a justice of the peace to make application for bounty land under the act of Sept. 28, 1850. He swore that he was 55 years old and that he had served in a company commanded by Capt. Joseph Deyo in an infantry regiment of New York Militia commanded by Abraham F. Hardenbergh in the War of 1812; that “John Sparks was detached at the town of Plattekill, Ulster County, New York, on or about the first day of September A.D. 1813 for the term of three months and that he the said Joseph D. Sparks continued in actual service in said war for the term of three months lacking about two weeks, as a substitute for the said John Sparks, as will appear by the muster rolls of said company. That; he was honorably discharged by a certificate from said Captain, but that from lapse of time the said certificate has been lost & he does not bmw where to find the same & has been unable to find it on deligent search therefor. That the said regiment was discharged at Schatangeau[?], four Corners N.Y. but he did not receive his said certificate till he arrived at the town of Paltz, Ulster Co. N.Y. when and where he received his pay for his service.”  He signed his name as “Joseph D. Sparks” in the presence of Cyrus K. Cor1iss, Justice of the Peace.

The Treasury Department reported that documents on file indicated that Joseph D. Sparks had served from September 8, 183, until October 27, 1813. He was granted 40 acres of bounty land under the act of 1850.

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On April 10, 1855, Joseph D. Sparks appeared before Adolph M. Brush, a justice of the peace, and applied for additional bounty land under the act of 1855. He stated that he was 60 years old and a resident of Poughkeepsie, New York. In describing his service in the War of 1812, he gave no information besides that which he had given in 1850. He signed his name as “Joseph D. Sparks.” The witnesses to his application were David T. Sparks and John W. Henderson. He was issued a warrant for 120 additional acres of bounty land under the act of 1855.

Joseph D. Sparks died at Jefferson, New York, on March 29, 1867. On June 1, 1878, Esther C. Sparks, widow of Joseph D. Sparks, made application for a pension based on her husband’s service in the War of 1812, under the act of March 9, 1878. She stated that she was 77 years old and that she had been married to Joseph D. Sparks in New Paltz, Ulster County, New York, on July 6, 1822, by William R. Bogardus, a Minister of the Gospel, and that her maiden name had been Esther C. Titus. She further stated that neither she nor her husband had been married previously, that her husband had died at Jefferson, New York, on March 29, 1867, and that she was still his widow. She stated that from the date of his discharge, Joseph D. Sparks had lived at Modena, Poughkeepsie, Franklin, and Jefferson, all towns in the state of New York. She stated that her own residence was in Austerlitz, Columbia County, New York, but that her post-office was Spencertown, in the same county. She signed her name as “Esther C. Sparks” in the presence of Michael D. Higgins, Justice of the Peace. Ezra B. Peirce, aged 46, and Adelaide S. Peirce, aged 47, both residents of Spencertown, both swore that they had known “the said Esther C. Sparks for 17 years and for 40 years respectively” and “that they know the said Joseph D. & Esther C. Sparks lived together as Husband & wife until the death of the said Joseph D. Sparks in 1867.”

Accompanying the application of Esther C. Sparks for a pension was a sworn statement made May 28, 1878, by Elizabeth Conkling, aged 74, of the town of Shawaugenk[?], Ulster County, New York, who swore that “she is a native of Ulster County...and has always lived in said county since birth, That on or about the sixth day of July in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty two, she was present at the Dutch Reformed Parsonage at New Paltz in said County of Ulster, and witnessed the marriage ceremony performed, according to the rites of the Dutch Reformed Church of America, between Joseph D. Sparks and Esther C. Titus, by William R. Bogardus, the Minister in charge of the said Church at New Paltz.” She signed her name as “Elizabeth Conkling,” in the presence of Rector Sears, a notary public. Attached to this document is a statement signed by Jesse C. Howell identifying Elizabeth Conkling as a resident of the same town as himself and “that she is an elderly person, and unable to travel, except for a very short distance.”

Also accompanying the pension application of Esther C. Sparks was a sworn statement made by her husband’s nephew, James Sparks, of New York City. In May, 1878, James Sparks deposed that “he was born in the town of New Paltz in the county of Ulster... in the year 1818, and now resides at No. 305 West 48th St. in the city of New York; and that he was personally acquainted with his father’s brother, Joseph D. Sparks, & also with Esther C. Sparks his wife, from deponent’s infancy to the time of the death of the said Joseph D. Sparks about ten years ago; and that the said Esther C. Sparks is now living with her son-in-law, the Reverend Ezra B. Pierce at Spencertown in the county of Columbia in said state...” He signed this statement as “James Sparks” in the presence of George M. Van Hoesen, a Judge of Common Pleas.

Also accompanying her application was a statement by Philip Peltz, Pastor of the Reformed Dutch Congregation in New Paltz; he stated that he had examined the records of the church and that during the ministry of William R. Bogardus there was recorded the following marriage: “1822, July 6, Joseph D. Sparks & Esther C. Titus.”

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Esther C. Sparks was granted a pension of $8.00 per month. The last paper in this file is a routine report dated May 28, 1887, that Mrs. Sparks was still living and was residing with her daughter, Mrs. Rev. E. B. Pierce at Copack, Columbia County, New York. On earlier records this name had been spelled Peirce.

(Editor’s Note: From our few scattered references, it is apparent that there was a Sparks family in Ulster County, New York, early in the 1730’s. A Robert Sparks was a member of the Ulster County Militia in 1738; George Sparks and Robert Sparks from Ulster County were members of Capt. William McGinnis’ Company in 1755. In 1758 a Robert Sparks was listed in Capt. Ebenezer Sealy Jr.’s Ulster County Company and was described as 21 years of age, a weaver, born in Wall Kill, Ulster County, and as a member of Capt. Clinton’s Company in 1760, Robert Sparks was described as 23 years of age, 5 feet 5½ inches tall, with black hair and black eyes.

Joseph D. Sparks was listed on the 1850 census of Dutchess County, New York, as 54 years of age and a mason by occupation; his wife, Esther, was listed as 48 years old; living with them were Adelade Sparks, age 18; David Sparks, age 22, George Sparks, age 16, and Seward Sparks, age 13. Also listed as living in the same household was George Sparks, aged 31, whose occupation was that of constable; his wife, Emily, was 25 years old, and their one child, Edgar Sparks, was one year olci; Also living in Dutchess County in 1850 was Maria Sparks, aged 54; living with her was Martha Sparks, aged 19; also Catherine Brown, aged 22; John Brown, aged 8; and Helen Brown, aged 3.)

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JOSIAH SPARKS born about 1796 in New Jersey, died in Wilmington, Delaware, on Dec. 29, 1866; SARAH SPARKS, widow of Josiah Sparks, born about 1803, died June 15, 1899. Bounty Land Warrant File 60 386-120-55; Pension File WC 20 462.

On June 14, 1852, Josiah Sparks, a resident of Wilmington, Delaware, appeared before William B. Wiggins, a notary public, to make application for bounty land under the act of Sept. 28, 1850. He stated that he was 56 years old and that he had served in the War of 1812 as a private in Capt. Peter Souder’s Company in an infantry regiment commanded by a Col. Howell. He also swore that he had volunteered at Allowaystown, New Jersey, in July, 1814, had served for three months, and had been discharged at Salem, New Jersey, in December, 1814. He signed his application as “Josiah Sparks.”

Accompanying this application was the following declaration made in New Castle County, Delaware, on June 25, 1852: “Aaron Sparks maketh Solemn Oath and saith that he is sixty-two years of age and resides in Camden in the State of New Jersey and has been personally acquainted with Josiah Sparks for the last fifty years. and knows from his own personal knowledge that the said Josiah Sparks served in the company of Peter Souder as he says he did as deponent served with him for the same time and knows his statement is true and although he bears the same name he has no interest in the procuration of the Bounty asked for. [signed] Aaron Sparks.”

War Department records proved that Josiah Sparks had served from Sept. 27 to Dec. 20, 1814, and he was issued a warrant for 40 acres of bounty land.

On June 22, 1855, Josiah Sparks made application for additional bounty land under the act of 1855. He gave his age as 59 years and stated he was a resident of Wilmington, Delaware. He gave the same information regarding his service in the War of 1812 as he had on his earlier application, and he signed his name as “Josiah Sparks.” The witnesses were George H. Phinneous and Andrew McKee. He was issued a warrant for 120 additional acres of bounty land.

On October 9, 1878, Sarah Sparks, widow of Josiah Sparks, appeared before S. Rodmond Smith, Clerk of the U.S. District County in Delaware, to make application for a pension

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under the act of March 9, 1878. She stated she was 75 years old and a resident of 706 Market St., Wilmington, Delaware; that her name before her marriage to Josiah Sparks had been Sarah Doel, and that she had been married to Josiah Sparks on July 11, 1854, by the Rev. Robert Gerry at Wilmington, Delaware. She stated that her husband had died on Dec. 28, 1866. She signed her application as “Sarah Sparks.” Henry P. Weaver of 706 Market St., and Sarah Coxe of 423 E. 8th St., Wilmington signed as witnesses, and their signatures were witnessed by William E., Grimmage and James H. Seeny.

With her application, Sarah Sparks submitted a statement by Albert W. Smith, Sec. and Treas. of the Wilmington and Brandywine Cemetery, dated Feb. 13, 1879, that Josiah Sparks had died on Dec. 29, 1866, aged 72 years, of dropsy, and had been buried in Lot No. 1, Sec. P.

With her application, Sarah Sparks submitted a statement signed by Sarah Coxe on Oct. 9, 1878, that she had known Sarah and Josiah Sparks from the time of their marriage and had no doubt that the marriage took place as Sarah Sparks stated. Also included was a statement signed by Sarah A. Robinson of 537 Elm St., Camden, New Jersey, that she had been present at the marriage on July 11, 1854, in Wilmington by the Rev. Robert Gerry, Pastor of Asbury Methodist Church in Wilmington.

Sarah Sparks was granted a pension of $12.00 per month which was paid until her death on June 15, 1899.

(Editor’s Note: The Aaron Sparks, whose statement dated June 25, 1852, was quoted above, and who was probably closely related to Josiah, died Sept. 4, 1856. His widow, Elizabeth, received a pension--see the QUARTERLY of September, 1960 (Vol. VIII, No. 3), p. 496. We have no records pertaining to Josiah Sparks, but it seems probable that Sarah Doel, whom he married in 1854, was a second wife.)

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LABAN SPARKS born about 1794 in Baltimore County. Maryland, son of Thomas and Rachel (Perdue) Sparks. Bounty Land Warrant File 50 098-120-55.

On December 10, 1851, Laban Sparks, a resident of Baltimore County, Maryland, appeared before Joshua F. Cockey, a justice of the peace, and applied for bounty land under the act of Sept. 28, 1850. He stated that he was 56 years old and declared that he had served as a private in a company commanded by Capt. Edward Orrick in the 41st Regiment of Maryland Militia commanded by Lt. Col. William Hutchins in the War of 1812. He said he had been drafted in Baltimore County on or about August 25, 1814, had served two months, and had been honorably discharged at Baltimore on October 27, 1814. He signed his application as “Laban Sparks.” He was issued a warrant for 40 acres of bounty land.

On March 15, 1855, Laban Sparks apolied for additional bounty land under the act of March 3, 1855. He was still a resident of Baltimore County and gave his age as 61 years. His statement regarding his service was essentially the same as he had made in 1850. He again signed his name as “Laban Sparks.” His witnesses to his application in 1855 were John Hale and Aquilla Wilson, both residents of Baltimore County. Laban Sparks was issued a warrant for 120 additional acres of bounty land.

(Editor’s Note: These papers are misfiled in the National Archives under the name Saban Sparks. For additional genealogical data on Laban Sparks see the QUARTERLY of June, 1958 (Vol. VI, No. 2), page 298 [Whole No. 22].)

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LEONARD SPARKS born probably between 1780 and 1790 in South Carolina, a resident of Jefferson County, Tennessee about 1806-1812, date of death uncertain; PATSEY (BEARD) SPARKS, born about 1780 in Tennessee, died about 1884 in Cherokee County, Alabama. Pension File WO 42 599.

On January 1, 1883, Patsey Sparks, a resident of Centre, Cherokee County, Alabama, appeared before R. R. Savage, Judge of Probate, to make application for a pension under the provisions of the act providing for war-widows of 1878. Patsey Sparks stated that she was 104 years old and that she was the widow of Leonard Sparks who had been a private in a company commanded by a Capt. Butler (she later substituted the name of Capt. Lockhart) in an infantry regiment commanded by Longstreet in the War of 1812. She stated that Leonard Sparks had been drafted near Dandridge in East Tennessee (which is in Jefferson County) in May 1812, and that after serving nearly 3 months, he died near Spartanburg, South Carolina, about July 30, 1812, as a result of a wound received in battle. (This date of death is in error, as will be explained in the Editor’s note at the end of these abstracts; although it appears to be “1812” and was so interpreted by the Pension Office in their attempt to vertify it, it appears to have been marked over and perhaps was intended as “1832”.)

Patsey Sparks stated that at the time of his enlistment, Leonard Sparks was a “tall, raw Boned man, with very black Hair with deep yellow eyes and High forehead.” She stated that she had been married to Leonard Sparks at Dandridge, Tennessee, in December, 1794, by Ben Bradford, a justice of the peace, although the marriage bond on record in Jefferson County, Tennessee, indicates the date was actually 1806. She stated that her maiden name had been Patsey Beard, and added that neither she nor her husband had been married previously, that she had never married again, and that she had lived in Jackson County and Cherokee County, Alabama, since his death. She also stated that she had never received bounty land nor a pension from the U.S. government. She appointed the legal firm of Savage, Matthews & Daniel as her attorneys. She signed her application by mark.

The witnesses to the application of Patsey Sparks were Elihu Sparks, who gave his age as 80, and Emiline Sparks, aged 48, both residents of Cherokee County, Alabama. Elihu Sparks stated he had known Patsey Sparks for 70 years and Emiline Sparks stated she had known her for 30 years. Elihu Sparks stated he “has lived near her every since the War of 1812 in the same Neighborhood and near said Leonard for Eleven years before his death & Emaline Sparks has lived in the same Neighborhood of said Patsey for thirty years and has heard her speak of her said husband & about his being in the War of 1812 and his dying from a wound he received in a battle during said war many times.” Both Elihu and Emiline Sparks signed their names to this statement.. (From other records it is known that Elihu Sparks was actually a son of Patsey and that Emiline was his wife.)

When Patsey Sparks’s lawyers submitted her application on January 2, 1883, they stated: “You must know that the recollection of a Lady as old as she is, is feeble, hence the failure to remember the names of the officers and No. of Regiment &c. Elihu Sparks one of the witnesses, says that Leonard Sparks served under Gen. Jackson but the Blank don’t require that to be stated hence it is left out. The old Lady is in a deplorable condition indeed and if anything can be done for her it would indeed be an act of kindness.”

On Feb 2, 1883, the Commissioner of Pensions wrote to Patsey Sparks saying that no record could be found of Leonard Sparks on the rolls of Capt. Butler’s Company and suggested that she send the testimony of comrades who served in the same company or regiment with her husband, On Feb. 11, 1883, Patsey Sparks replied to the Commissioner as follows:

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“Centre P.O. Cherokee Co. Ala. Feb. the 11 1883

    to the Pension office Department. I have now Done my Best in making my Proof my Best Witness is ded and I Want you all to exammon the role of Capten Lockhart and see if you can find Mathew Norton & Elihu Beard & Mathew Sparks & Ring Sparks & Isac Brown for tha Was all in the same Company and a Part of theam got a land Warnt for thir Servaice and I have emploid Savage & Matthews & Daniel to get my Claim for I no that my hosband Was in the War of 1812 With the men I have named and I Want you all to look for the names that I have named you Will find Lenard Sparks name for I no that tha Was all in the Same Company and that Lenard Sparks Was in the War about four monts.
                                                                                                                                    [signed] Patsey Sparks.”

Note that in this letter, Patsey Sparks stated that the captain’s name was Lockhart rather than Butler. Note also that, whereas she signed her application by mark, she signed her name to this letter. The letter itself, however, was probably written by someone else. With this letter, she sent the document that has been reproduced on the cover of this issue of the QUARTERLY. Unfortunately, we have not been able thus far to identify the signer of this statement. From his signature, it appears that his name was Ning Sparks, and in her letter of Feb. 11, 1883, Patsey Sparks calls him Ning. This must have been a nickname. No record has been found of his receiving bounty land. He must have been closely related to Leonard Sparks and to Matthew Sparks with whom he mentioned having served. Perhaps all three were brothers. This document reads as follows:

“Cherokee Co Ala this to sertiffy that I no that the said Lenard Sparks Was in the War of 1812 and that he Was Wounded and dide in actule Service and that he Was in Servis about fore months and that he Was Wounded in the Battle of Bronstown if my memory servs me right, and the Captains name Was Lockhart if I ant forgot I Wont be Posative in the Captain name
                                                                                                                                    [signed] Ning Sparks

    to the Penson agent Pleas look for my name and for Mathew Norton and for Mathew Sparks and you Will find that We Did git a land Warnt for our Servaice and I think you Will finde Lenard Sparks name for We all Was in the same Company if his name ot on the role it ot to be
                                                                                                                                    [signed]  Ning Sparks”

From the records in this file, it is apparent that the Pension Office made an extensive search trying to find a record of Leonard Sparks’s service, but they could neither find his name nor the names of any of his comrades as named by Patsey Sparks on the roll of any Tennessee regiment. In 1885 the Pension Office wrote to the postmaster of Centre, Alabama, to ask whether Pat sey Sparks were still living. The postmaster replied by saying: “Mrs. Sparks has been dead 2 years, her husband Leonard Sparks is generally believed to have been in the War of 1812.” With this report, the Pension Office dropped its investigation.

(Editor’s Note: Patsey Sparks was listed on the 1880 census of Cherokee County, Alabama, in the household of her son, Elihu Sparks. (In the 1880 census, relationship of each member of a household to the head of that household was indicated.) Patsey Sparks gave her age in 1880 as 101, thus it would appear she was born about 1780; she gave her birthplace as Tennessee, also indicating that both of her parents had been born in Tennessee. Elihu Sparks gave his age as 70 in 1880 (whereas in 1883 he stated he was 80), and indicated that he, as well as his father, had been born in South Carolina. Living with Elihu Sparks in 1880 was his wife, Emiline Sparks, aged 46 (she was probably his second wife), also a son named Elihu Sparks, aged 18 and born in Alabama, and a daughter, Sarah Sparks, aged 5 and also born in Alabama. Also living in the family was a Mary Sparks, aged 5, who was listed as a grandchild of Elihu Sparks. We have not had the 1860 or 1870 census of Cherokee County searched. In our search of the entire state of Alabama for 1850, this family did not appear.

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(Continuation of Editor’s Note on pension application of Patsey Sparks)

In her pension application, Patsey Sparks stated that she and her husband, Leonard Sparks, had been married at Dandridge, Tennessee (Jefferson County), in Deoember, 1794. Her memory seems to have failed her regarding this date, for there is on file in Jefferson County, Tennessee, a marriage bond for Leonard Sparks and Patsey Beard dated July 25, 1806; Matthew Norton was bondsman. (There is als a marriage bond in Jefferson County for Thomas Sparks and Sally McClister dated November 6, 1816, with Leonard Sparks as bondsman.)

It is questionable that Patsey Sparks was correct about her husband's death in the War of 1812--since this date is not entirely clear in the application, she not even have intended that it read “18l2”--possibly she intended 1832. He may well have died many years later as a result of a wound received in the war.

There is little doubt but that Leonard Sparks belonged to the branch of the Sparks family that came from Maryland to Pittsylvania County, Virginia, in l778. There was a Leonard Sparks (perhaps he was the father of Patsey’s husband) who was born about 1763 and who was listed on the tax records of Pittsylvania County during the period 1783 to 1791, By 1797, he was a resident of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, and by 1810 he was designated in the county records as “Leonard Sparks, Sr.” He lived. on the Pacolet River on land that lay on the line between Union County and Spartanburg County. On a few deeds he is listed as a resident of Union County.

The name “Leonard Sparks, Jr.” first appears in the land records of Spartanburg County in 1825 and in 1827 an Elihu Sparks signed as a witness to a deed of Leonard Sparks, Jr. In another deed, also dated 1827, the wife of Leonard Sparks, Jr., is designated as “Patey Sparks.”

Although Leonard Sparks, Sr., was listed as a resident of Spartanburg County in the census of 1830 (aged between 70 and 80), Leonard Sparks, Jr., disappears from Spartanburg County records after 1827. Because an Elihu Sparks signed as witness to a deed of Leonard Sparks, Jr., in 1827, and Leonard Jr.’s wife’s name was given as Patey, it seems rather probable that he was the same Leonard Sparks referred to in the above pension application, in spite of the fact that Patsey stated he died in l812. (Note she also stated she and Leonard were married in 1794 when in reality they were not married until 1806.) Of course, if the Leonard Sparks,  of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, was the same Leonard Sparks who married Patsey Beard, he must have lived for a few years in Jefferson County, Tennessee. Actually, the distance between these two points is not much more than 100 miles.)

(These abstracts of bounty land and pension papers
will be continued in future issues of the Quarterly)

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DEATH TAKES MRS. ORAL A. SPARKS OF CLIO, IOWA

It is with deep regret that we report the passing of Alice Evelyn (Mace) Sparks, wife of Oral A. Sparks. (Mr. Sparks is the author of “Trials and Tribulations of the Early Day Motorist” that appeared in the September, 1960, issue of the QUARTERLY.)   Mrs. Sparks, daughter of Albert and Annie Mace, was born near Allerton, Iowa, on March 18, 1889, and died on October 19, 1961. She and her husband were married on June 7, 1911, they celebrated their golden wedding anniversary on June 7, 1961. Mr. and Mrs. Sparks were the parents of the following children:  Melva Sparks Bidlack of Ann Arbor, Michigan;  J. Gerald Sparks of Great Falls, Montana; and the Rev, A. Harold Sparks of Waterloo, Iowa.

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SPARKSES IN NORTH CAROLINA -- 1850 CENSUS

Compiled by William Perry Johnson

According to the 1790 census of North Carolina, around 86 persons named Spark(e)s were living in six of the fifty-four counties: Anson, Northampton, Rockingham, Rowan, Surry, and Wilkes. In the sixty years between 1790 and 1850, several Spark(e)ses moved to other North Carolina counties; many left North Carolina and settled in other states to the north, west, and south; a few remained at or near the original North Carolina homestead of their forefathers; and a few came from Virginia into North Carolina.

By 1850, according to the Federal census of that year, a total of 282 men, women, and children named Spark(e)s were residents of eighteen (roughly 20 per cent) of the 79 North Carolina counties then in existence:
 

Name of County Number of Spark(e)ses

 
Anson ---------------------------------   5
Ashe ---------------------------------   2
Buncombe ---------------------------------   5 
Burke --------------------------------- 12
Caldwell --------------------------------- 11
Cherokee ---------------------------------   7
Cleveland --------------------------------- 39
Davis ---------------------------------   6
Edgecombe ---------------------------------   2
Iredell ---------------------------------   6
Lincoln ---------------------------------   1
McDowell ---------------------------------   5
Rockingham ---------------------------------   7
Rutherford ---------------------------------   4
Surry --------------------------------- 34
Wake ---------------------------------   1
Wilkes --------------------------------- 86
Yancey --------------------------------- 49
                 Total----------------       282

 The 1850 population of North Carolina was 869,039. Thus, roughly, one person out of every 3,000 was named Spark(e)s. However, in the counties where there were several Spark(e)s families, the ratio was closer to one out of every 100.

In the following list, the page number refers to the page in the volume containing the particular county named. The two numbers given below the page number are those supplied by the census taker. The first was the house number, the second was the family number. These two numbers are often the same, but when two families lived in the same house, the sequences would thereafter be different. These numbers are useful to the genealogist because one can frequently judge how near one family lived to another by comparing the numbers. (Thus, in Burke County we know that the family of George Sparks (470-470) lived very near that of William Sparks (471-471).) Opposite each person’s name is given his age, whether male or female, and the state in which he was born. Where the census taker listed occupation and value of real estate owned, this information is also given.

Following is a detailed listing of the Spark(e)ses found on the 1850 census of North Carolina, arranged alphabetically by counties:

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Anson County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

   Cedar Hill District; Post Office, Burnsville.
(p. 422)
699-699 Floid, James P   24  (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
     "     Margaret  17  (F)      "          "
Smith, Sarah  57  (F)      "          " $500
Sparks, Neoma  62  (F)      "          "

   Diamond Hill District
(p. 433)
777-777 Sparks, John  38  (M) North Carolina  Macanic   
       "       Francis  42  (F)      "          "
     "       James A.  10  (M)      "          "
     "       Zachry    4  (M)      "          "

Ashe County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 17)
123-123 Sparks, John   66   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $400 
       "       Elizabeth  62  (F)      "          "

Buncome County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 236)
562-562 Sparks, Abs.   50  (M) North Carolina  Laborer   
       "       Margaret  45  (F)      "          "
     "       Sidney  18  (M)      "          " Laborer
     "       John  15  (M)      "          "
     "       Cate  12  (F)      "          "

Burke County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 366)
470-470 Sparks, George   31   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Nancy  32  (F)      "          "
     "       Jeremiah  10  (M)      "          "
     "       Joseph    5  (M)      "          "
     "       Emily    3  (F)      "          "
     "       James  24  (M)      "          " Miner
     "       Erwin[?]  20  (M)      "          " Miner

 
471-471 Sparks, William   57   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Rachel  56  (F)      "          "
     "       John  19  (M)      "          "
     "       Mary Ann[?]  16  (F)      "          "

 
476-476 Hodge, George  35  (M) North Carolina   Farmer  $1000 
       "      Lucinda  35  (F)      "          "
     "      Robert    6  (M)      "          "
     "      Martha    2  (F)      "          "
Sparks, Jesse  23  (M)      "          " Labourer

 

***************
-601-

Caldwell County, North Carolina -- Census

   Summer's District
(p.573)
337-337 Sprarks, James   48  (M) Surry County, N. C. Farmer   
       "        Nancy  43  (F) Burke Co., N. C.
     "        William  12  (M)    "        "        "
     "        Marcus  10  (M)    "        "        "
     "        Mary    6  (F) Caldwell Co., N. C.
     "        Thomas    4  (M)    "        "          "

 
338-338 Sparks, Sarah   50  (F) Surry County., N.C.    
       "       Elizabeth  26  (F) Virginia (insane)
     "       Benjamin  21  (M) Burke Co., N. C.
     "       Elizabeth  70  (F) Maryland

Cherokee County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 9)
51-51 Sparks, Saml. P.   29   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Mary  22  (F)     "          "
     "       Jeremiah    5  (M)     "          "
     "       Jackson    1  (M)     "          "

(p. 27)
176-176 Sparks, Solomon   60  (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Julia  44  (F)     "          "
     "       Joel  22  (M) Kentucky

Cleveland County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 407)
180-180 Sparkes, Lewis   37  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $100 
       "         Sarah  48  (F)     "          "
     "        John L.    8  (M)     "          "
     "        Caleb L.    7  (M)     "          "
     "        William A.    5  (M)     "          "
     "        Aensley 11/12  (M)     "          "
Jones, Simerena [?]  40  (F)     "          "

(p. 408)
190-190 Sparkes, Thomas  42   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "        Rachel  36  (F)     "          "
     "        Morgan  14  (M)     "          "
     "        Caty  12  (F)     "          "
     "        Albert  10  (M)     "          "
     "        Roxannah    8   (F)     "          "
     "        Elizabeth    6  (F)     "          "
     "        Rufus    4  (M)     "          "

(p. 409)
194-194 Sparkes, Alpha   32  (M) North Carolina Overseer   
       "        Louisa  33  (F)     "          "
     "        Nancy  10  (F)     "          "
     "        John T.    8  (M)     "          "
     "        Monroe    4  (M)     "          "
     "        Martha    2  (F)     "          "
     "        Harvey G. 8/12  (M)     "          "
(Note:  The last four names of the above family appear on page 602 in the QUARTERLY)

***************
-602-

Cleveland County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census (Continued)

(p. 443)
447-447 Sparkes, John  77   (M)  Virginia  Miller   
        "       Nancy  70  (F)      "

(p. 454)
526-526 Sparkes, Linsey   25   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
        "       Frances  23  (F)       "          "
      "       William H.    1   (M)      "          "

(p. 489)
782-782 Sparkes, Barnet   42  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $200
        "       Nicey  40  (F)      "          "
      "       Craton  15  (M)      "          "
      "       Thomas  13  (M)      "          "
      "       Barnet M.  11  (M)      "          "
      "       Hiram  10  (M)      "          "
      "       Joshua    7  (M)      "          "
      "       Katharine     4  (F)      "          "
      "       Rebecca    2  (F)      "          "
        "       Unicy    1  (F)      "          "

 
784-784 Sparkes, William   66   (M) Virginia  Farmer   
       "        Judy  66  (F)      "
     "        Margaret  30  (F) North Carolina
Wright, Mary  73  (F) Virginia $500

Davie County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 45)
314-314 Sparks, Martha E.   51  (F) Virginia    $1200 
       "       James   22  (M) Davie Co., N.C. Farmer
     "       Emily  19  (F)    "       "        "
     "       Harvey  16  (M)    "       "        "
     "       Charles  10  (M)    "       "        "
Benson, Samuel (black)  34  (M)    "       "        "

(p. 51)
360-360 McDaniel, James   50   (M) Davie Co., N.C. Farmer   
          "       Sarah  44   (F)    "       "        "
        "      Alfred  21  (M)    "       "        " Laborer
Sparks, Catherine (mulatto)  20   (F)    "       "        "

***************
-603-

Edgecombe County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 48)
----376 Sparks, John   22   (M) North Carolina  Overseer   
       "       Martha  20  (F)      "          "
Wadkins, R.  13  (M)      "          "
Johnson [?], Oewel [?] 9/12  (M)      "          "

Iredell County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 196)
1431-1441 Sparkes, Thomas   33   (M) North Carolina  Stiller   
        "       Catharine  33  (F)      "          "
      "       Michael    9  (M)      "          "
      "       William A.    7  (M)      "          "
      "       John C.    4  (M)      "          "
      "       Adalain J.    1  (F)      "          "

Lincoln County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 223)
537-548 Hagan, Simon   27   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $1500 
       "      Jane  66  (F)      "          " 
     "      Jane  30  (F)      "          "
Sparks, Solomon  12  (M)      "          "

McDowell County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 309)
794-794 Sparks, Ivan A.  24  (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "      Elizabeth  22  (F)      "          "
     "      Esther E.    3  (F)      "          "
    "       Susan    1  (F)      "          "

(p.312)
830-830 Mitchel, Hiram [?] J.  30  (M) North Carolina Mason  $300 
        "      Mariah  23  (F)      "          "
      "      Narcissa    5  (F)      "          "
      "      William S.    2  (M)      "          "
      "       Caledonia A. 1/12  (F)      "          "
Sparks, Sarah  22  (F)      "          "
Rector, Thomas  16  (M)      "          " Apprentice
Schism, William  35  (M)      "          " Mason

Rockingham County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 8)
110-110 Sparks, Mathew   67  (M) Virginia  Farmer  $300 
       "       Mary  57  (F)      "
     "       S. P.  21   (M)      "
Stires, Martha  23  (F) North Carolina
Snow, Joe (black)  25  (M)      "          "

***************
-604-

Rockingham County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census  (Continued)

(p.10)
131-131 French, Thomas   39   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $250 
       "       A. H.   29  (F) Virginia
Sparks, M. T.  26   (M)       "
French, M. S.    4  (F) North Carolina
      "     M. E.    2  (F)  
      "     M. A. 8/12  (F)

(p. 32)
448-457 Sparks, William H.   26   (M) Virginia  Overseer   
       "       C. M.  28  (F) North Carolina
     "       S. E.    3   (F)     "          "

Rutherford County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 595)
976-1000 Sparks, Calvin   53   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $337 
       "       Susan  (F)     "          "
     "       Eliza J.  (F)     "          "
     "       M. R.  (F)     "          "

Surry County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

   The Southern Division
(p. 169)
119-120 Wood, Francis  32   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $100 
       "      Elizabeth V.  (F)     "          "
     "      Luvina  (F)     "          "
Sparks, Elizabeth  (F)     "          "

 
120-121 Sparks, Alexander   26   (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $100 
       "       Mary J.  20  (F)     "          " (married w/i yr)
Briant, Vicy  18  (F)     "          "
    "      Lewis  50  (M)     "          " Shoemaker

(p. 174)
189-190 Sparks, Russel   37  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $500 
       "       Nancy  34  (F)     "          "
     "       Louisa  10  (F)     "          "
     "       Sally C.    5  (F)     "          "
     "       John A.    4  (M)     "          "
     "       Martha D.    3  (F)     "          "
     "       Mary M.    2  (F)     "          "
     "       Solomon M. 2/12  (M)     "          "
Denney, Jacob K.  52  (M)     "          " Labourer

(p. 175)
207-208 Sparks, Benjamin   63   (M)  North Carolina Farmer  $500 
       "       Sarah  60  (F)     "          "
     "       Solomon  25  (M)     "          " Farmer $320
     "       Martha  23  (F)     "          "
     "       Sally  18  (F)     "          "
     "       Benjamin  17  (M)     "          " Farmer
Frasier [?], Andrew  18  (M)     "          " Laborer

***************
-605-

Surry County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census (Continued)

(p. 175)
208-208 Sparks, Joseph   33  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $100 
       "       Martha  27  (F)      "          "
     "       Benjamin T.    6  (M)      "          "
     "       William R.    5  (M)      "          "
     "       John A.    4  (M)      "          "
     "       Sarah A.    3  (F)      "          "
     "       James L. 1/12  (M)      "          "
Bully, John  46  (M)      "          "

(p. 185)
347-348  Sparks, William Z.   58  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $150 
       "       Mary  37  (F)      "          "
     "       James  21  (M)      "          "
Bange, Uriah  10  (M)      "          "

(p. 189)
419-420 Rhinehart, Christian   36  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $200 
         "        Rachel  30  (F)      "          "
       "        Mary M.  13  (F)      "          "
       "        James F.  10  (M)      "          "
       "        Sarah C.    5  (F)      "          "
       "        Elizabeth C. 6/12  (F)      "         "
Sparks, Elizabeth  25  (F)      "          "
McGuire, Philips  31  (M)      "          " Physician

(p. 192)
454-456 Sparks, William   23  (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Araminta  23  (F)      "          "
     "       James W. 10/12  (M)      "          "

 
465-467 Sparks, Abednego   29   (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       Mary  21  (F)      "          "
     "       Jinsey A.   1  (F)      "          "

Wake County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 237)
990-990 Lynn, Christopher   38   (M) North Carolina    $419 
  [Listed as mullatto; perhaps an error.  WPJ]  
Lynn, Candice  35  (F) North Carolina
   "      Mary  13  (F)      "          "
   "      Martha  10  (F)      "          "
   "      Jane    7  (F)      "          "
   "      Caroline    4  (F)      "          "
   "      Frances    6  (F)      "          "
   "      Louisa 7/12  (F)      "          "
Sparks, Elizabeth  65  (F)      "          "

***************
-606-

Wilkes County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p.254)
59-59 Sparkes, Sidney   44   (M) North Carolina  Pauper   
  Gambill, Hugh  20  (M)      "          " Farmer
     "       Nancy  22  (F)      "          "
     "       Felix    1  (M)      "          "

[Scanner's note:  The following family was omitted in the original article and is included here pursuant to SQ p. 3721:]

 (p. 265.  Census taken July 23, 1850, by A. Carmichael.
213-213 Cook, Richard  55  (M) Rowan Co., NC Farmer $1150
      "      Rebeccah 43 (F)      "         "      "
    "      Lafayett 25 (M)      "         "      " Doctor
Sparkes, John 55 (M)      "         "      " Farming
Perdue, Wesley 19 (M)      "         "      "

(p. 256)
87-87 Sparkes, Reubin   50   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Farmer  $800 
        "       Phebe  43  (F)       "      "        "
      "       George  20  (M)       "      "        "
      "       Lewis  18  (M)       "      "        "
      "       Sally  13  (F)       "      "        "
      "       John    9  (M)       "      "        "
      "       William    6  (M)       "      "        "

(p. 257)
102-102 Sparkes, Nancy   52  (F) North Carolina    $600
        "       Hugh  17  (M)      "          "

 

(p.266)
231-231 Sparkes, Tempe   62  (F) Wilkes Co., N. C.     
        "        Malinda  26  (F) Surry Co., N.. C. 
Tedder, Rosey  27   (F) Wilkes Co., N. C.
     "      Elijah    2  (M)       "      "        "

(p. 270)
278-278 Lanoir Lands [?],Thomas   57  (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.   Farmer  $400 
  Combs, Liday Lucy  58  (F)       "      "        "
Riddle, Jane  39  (F)       "      "        "
Combs, Clara  23  (F)       "      "        "
    "        Levy [?]  22  (M)       "      "        " Farmer
Riddle, Jesse  15  (M)       "      "        " Farmer
     "     Lucinda  13  (F)       "      "        "
     "     Jacob  12  (M)       "      "        "
Sparks, Wesley  16  (M)       "      "        " Farmer

[Scanner's note:  Corrections above per SQ p. 3721.]

(p. 272)
312-312 Brown, Robert  30  (M) Virginia Farmer  $150 
  Sparks, Elizabeth  50  (F) Wilkes Co., N.C.

(p. 276)
368-368 Sparkes, Joel   53  (M) Wilkes Co., N. C.  Farmer  $150 
        "       Charlotte  24  (F)       "      "        "
      "       Caroline    4  (F)       "      "        "
      "       George    2  (M)       "      "        "
      "       Nancy    1  (F)       "      "        "

(p. 286)
512-512 Sparkes, William   53  (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Farmer   
        "        Milly  44  (F)       "      "        "
      "        Hugh    8  (M)       "      "        "
      "        Lotty    6  (F)       "      "        "
      "        Martha    3  (F)       "      "        "
      "        Whitfield    1  (M)       "      "        "

***************
-607-

Wilkes County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census: (Continued)

[Scanner's note:  The following family was omitted in the original article and is included here pursuant to SQ p. 3721:]

(p. 290A)  Census taken August 14, 1850, by A. Carmichael.
  Sparkes, Richmond  27   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Laborer  
        "         Martha 27   (F)      "       "       "
      "         Alexander   4   (M)      "       "       "
      "         George 9/12  (M)      "       "       "

(p. 302)
779-779 Sparkes, Joseph   27   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Farmer  $200
        "          Mary  24  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Martha    5  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Rachel 9/12  (F)      "       "       "

(p. 303)
790-790 Sparkes, Richmond   36   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C. Farmer  $250 
        "          Sarah  33  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Hugh  14  (M)      "       "       "
      "          Asey Ann  12  (F)      "       "       "
      "          John    8  (M)      "       "       "
      "          Joel    6  (M)      "       "       "
      "          Susan    4  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Abner    1  (M)      "       "       "

(p. 310)
894-894 Sparkes, Reubin   31   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C. Farmer  $500 
        "          Nancy  34  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Catherine    6  (F)      "       "       "

(p. 315)
964-964 Sparkes, Emanuel   39   (M) Ashe Co., N.C.  Farmer   
        "          Mary  36  (F) Wilkes Co., N.C.
      "          Jane  10  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Reubin    8  (M)      "       "       "
      "          Elizabeth    6  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Sally    4  (F)      "       "       "
      "          Catherine 8/12  (F)      "       "       "

 
975-975 Sparkes, David  27   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C. Farmer   
        "         Keza [or Kiza]   27  (F) Ashe Col, N.C.
      "         Jane    7  (F) Wilkes Co., N.C.
      "         Daniel    5  (M)      "       "       "
      "         Polly    1  (F)      "       "       "
Holbrook Vira (mulatto)    7  (F)      "       "       "

 
978-978 Spicer, Joseph   27   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C. Farmer  $400 
       "       Jane  68  (F) Virginia
     "       Washington  25  (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.
Sparks, Tennessee  19  (F)      "       "       "

(p. 329)
1169-1169 Sparkes, Colby   49   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Baptist Preacher  $700 
        "         Sarah  46  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Rincy  24  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Christiana  22  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Sarah  20  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Nancy  17  (F)       "       "       "
      "         Lena  14  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Ruth  11  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Julia    8  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Mioma [Naomi]    4  (F)      "       "       "

***************
  -608-

(p. 329)
1174-1174 Sparkes, Samuel   58  (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Farmer  $400 
        "         Mary  57  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Noah  21  (M)      "       "       " Farmer
      "         Elias  19  (M)      "       "       " Farmer
      "         Ransom  17  (M)      "       "       " Farmer
      "         George  15  (M)      "       "       " Farmer
      "         Samuel  13  (M)      "       "       "
      "         Mary  11  (F)      "       "       "

(p. 344)
1373-1373 Sparkes, Joel   30   (M) Surry Co., N. C.  Farmer   
        "         Mira   30  (F) Wilkes Co., N.C.
      "         Caroline    5  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Lavinia    3  (F)      "       "       "
      "         Edward    1  (M)      "       "       "

(p. 348)
1429-1429 Sparkes, Reubin   30   (M) Wilkes Co., N.C.  Farmer  $150 
        "         Belinda  21  (F)      "       "       "
      "         William    4  (M)      "       "       "
      "         Martha 9/12  (F)      "       "       "

 
1437-1437 Sparkes, James  28  (M) Surry Co., N. C.  Farmer   
        "         Sophia  25  (F)     "      "        "
      "         Mary    2  (F) Wilkes Co., N.C.

(p. 368)
1864-1864 Sparkes, David   27  (M) North Carolina     
        "         Keziah  27  (F)     "          "
      "         Jane    8  (F)     "          "
Holloway, John    6  (M)     "          "
       "         William    4  (M)     "          "
       "         Fanny    2  (F)     "          "

Yancey County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census

(p. 426)
598-631 Sparks, Thomas M.  45  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $1200 
        "      Jeremiah T.    7  (M)     "          "
      "      Joseph W.    5  (M)     "          "
      "      Matthew L.    3  (M)     "          "
      "      Mary A.  40  (F)     "          "
      "      Cyntha A.  15  (F)     "          "
      "      Nancy M.   13  (F)     "          "
      "      Sarah A. E.     9  (F)     "          "
      "      Mary E.     1  (F)     "          "

 
601-634 Sparks, Jeremiah  38  (M) North Carolina  Farmer $200 
      "      Samuel D.  18  (M)     "          " Laborer
        "      William   16  (M)     "          " Laborer
      "      Charles   14  (M)     "          "
      "      James     5  (M)     "          "
      "      Rachel   35  (F)     "          "
      "      Mary E.   10  (F)     "          "
      "      Jane E.     8  (F)     "          "
      "      Caroline     4  (F)     "          "
      "      Jemima J.     1  (F)     "          "

(Scanner's note:  The last five names above appear on page 609 of the Sparks Quarterly.)

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-609-

Yancey County, North Carolina -- 1850 Census; (Continued)

(p. 430)
647-681 Sparks, Wilson   28  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $200 
       "       William K.    5  (M)     "          "
     "       Thomas G.    2  (M)     "          "
     "       Stephen C. 1/12  (M)     "          "
     "       Mary  26  (F)     "          "
     "       Susannah    4  (F)     "          "

(p. 431)
654-688 Sparks, Matthew   37  (M) North Carolina  Ironsmith  $300 
       "       John  15  (M)     "          "
     "       Elizabeth  30  (F)     "          "
     "       Jane  13  (F)     "          "
     "       Mary  11  (F)     "          "
     "       Ann E.    9  (F)     "          "
     "       Evoline    8  (F)     "          "
     "       Sophronia    6  (F)     "          "
     "       Matilda    2  (F)     "          "

 
655-689 Sparks, Harden   31  (M) North Carolina  Farmer  $300 
       "       Stephen A.    9  (M)     "          "
     "       Elizabeth  22  (F)      "          "
     "       Nancy M.    5  (F)     "          "
     "       Barsheba M. 4/12  (F)     "          "

 
657-691 Sparks, Barsheba   51  (F) North Carolina     
       "       George  19  (M)     "          " Laborer
     "       Allen  17  (M)     "          " Laborer
     "       Reuben  12  (M)     "          "
     "       Whitfield M.    7  (M)     "          "

(p. 431)
662-697 Sparks, James   21  (M) North Carolina  Farmer   
       "       John M.    2  (M)     "          "
     "       George W. 2/12  (M)     "          "
     "       Jane  23  (F)     "          "
     "       Mary A.    4  (F)     "          "

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Scanned and Edited by James J. Sparks